Liver transplant is specialized surgery that is performed to remove the diseased liver, incapable of forming its physiological functions, with a healthy liver. It is a lifesaving procedure for those who have been suffering because of a malfunctioning liver, for long. There are more no of patients who need the transplant than the no of donors. Therefore, the patients who are critically ill receive the treatment before the rest. The conditions mentioned below are the ones that warrant a transplant:
Acute Liver Failure
Patients who have had high dose of paracetamol, viral infections, consumption of toxins from poisonous mushrooms are liable to suffer from acute liver failure. The clinical manifestations of acute liver failure include yellowing of skin followed by accumulation of toxins in the liver, usually within eight weeks. This leads to encephalopathy and confusion. Acute liver failure patients are on high priority while looking for transplant donors, since it can soon lead to death.
Chronic Liver Failure
This happens when the liver has been past its ability to repair. This happens due to repetitive injury and exposing liver to extreme conditions. The healthy liver tissue is replaced by a scarred liver tissue. It leads to impaired liver functioning and may cause liver cirrhosis, eventually leading to liver failure. Factors like chronic alcohol consumption, hepatitis and other viral infections, and non-alcoholic fatty liver are few factors that may lead to chronic liver failure.
Viral infections lead to conditions like hepatitis A, B and C (most common) which severely impair liver functioning.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Chronic alcohol consumption has long term effects on the liver. While early weaning and abstinence may help in liver in being normal again, chronic alcohol consumption has damaging effects and may warrant liver transplant.
Autoimmune Liver Disease
It has a genetic background, where the patient’s own immune system damages the liver cells, leading to its improper functioning.
Patients suffering from HCC, undergo a liver transplant. In cases where the cancer has not spread to other organs and body parts, a liver transplant is performed.
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